Canonical Voices

Posts tagged with '12.10'

Ben Howard

Many of our Cloud Image users have inquired about the availability of updated Ubuntu Cloud Images in response to the Heartbleed OpenSSL Vulnerability [1]. Ubuntu released update Ubuntu packages for OpenSSL 08 April 2014 [2]. Due to the exceptional circumstances and severity of the Heartbleed OpenSSL bug, Canonical has released new 12.04.4 LTS, 12.10 and 13.10 Cloud Images at [3].

Canonical is working with Amazon to get the Quickstart and the AWS Marketplace links updated. In the meantime, you can find new AMI ID's at [3] and [4]. Also, the snapshot's for Amazon have the volume-create permission granted on the latest images.

Windows Azure [5], Joyent [6] and HP [7, 8, 9] all have updated Cloud Images in their respective galleries.

If you are running an affected version of OpenSSL on 12.04 LTS, 12.10 or 13.10, you are strongly encouraged to update. For new instances, it is recommended to either use an image with a serial newer than 20140408, or update your OpenSSL  package immediately upon launch. Finally, if you need documentation on enabling unattended upgrades, please see [10].


[1] https://www.openssl.org/news/secadv_20140407.txt
[2] http://www.ubuntu.com/usn/usn-2165-1/
[3] 12.04.4 LTS: http://cloud-images.ubuntu.com/releases/precise/release-20140408/
     12.10: http://cloud-images.ubuntu.com/releases/quantal/release-20140409/
     13.10: http://cloud-images.ubuntu.com/releases/saucy/release-20140409.1/
[4] http://cloud-images.ubuntu.com/locator/ec2/
[5] Azure: Ubuntu-12_04_4-LTS-amd64-server-20140408-en-us-30GB
                 Ubuntu-12_10-amd64-server-20140409-en-us-30GB
                 Ubuntu-13_10-amd64-server-20140409.1-en-us-30GB
[6] Joyent Images:
        "ubuntu-certified-12.04", fe5aa6c0-0f09-4b1f-9bad-83e453bb74f3
        "ubuntu-certified-13.10", 049dfe64-6c37-4b88-8e89-4b8aa0f129f2
[7] HP US-West-1:
          12.04.4: 27be722e-d2d0-44f0-bebe-471c4af76039
          12.10: 065bb450-e5d0-4348-997d-e4d9e359b8fb
          13.10: 9d7d22d0-7d43-481f-a7eb-d93ea2791409
[8] HP US-East-1:
          12.04.4 8672f4c6-e33d-46f5-b6d8-ebbeba12fa02
          12.10: cbb44038-2602-48d5-b609-e05f4b61be9a
          13.10: 00398423-7429-4064-b781-fa0af00449c8
[9] Waiting on HP for replication to legacy regions az-{1,2,3}
[10] https://help.ubuntu.com/community/AutomaticSecurityUpdates

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Ben Howard

We are pleased to announce that Canonical has stood up official mirrors in HP Cloud's AZ-1, 2, and 3 regions.

If you are using Ubuntu Server 12.10 Cloud Images, there is no action to take; 12.10 images are by default configured to use the new mirror address.

For Ubuntu 12.04 instances, the default Ubuntu image does not automatically use the in-HP Cloud mirrors. We are currently working with HP to publish a new image that defaults to the local mirrors. If you would like to switch to the new in-HP mirrors, simply run:
          
    $ sudo sed -i -e \
            's,^archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu,nova.clouds.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu,g'  \
             /etc/apt/sources.list 

    $ sudo apt-get -y update

Note: *.clouds.archive.ubuntu.com is configured using split-horizon DNS. This means that the DNS answer to queries is based on the askering IP address; only queries originating within HP Cloud are answered with the HP Cloud mirror addresses. If your DNS resolver[s] is not based in HP Cloud, then you will be unable to benefit from these new mirrors. 
 

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Ben Howard

Shortly after introducing the Vagrant images, a number of users provided very valuable feedback. The general gist was "sure this is a nice, but useless." For Cloud Images, we definitely take our user feedback to heart. 


The 12.10 and 13.04 images now include Chef, Puppet and Juju clients. Also, the 13.04 images work now that the annoying Virtualbox installation error has been fixed. Users report that Chef and Chef Solo provisioning work with out any problems.

For 12.04, providing Chef support is somewhat more difficult as there are no official Ubuntu provided versions of Chef. Policy restricts us from providing third-party software on any image hosted on ubuntu.com. However, 12.04 does include Puppet and Juju.

The inclusion of Juju was added at the request of Juju charmers. In a future blog post, I'll illustrate how to use Vagrant for Juju charm development. 

Finally, a common query that I get is about this particular error message:

[default] No guest additions were detected on the base box for this VM! Guest
additions are required for forwarded ports, shared folders, host only
networking, and more. If SSH fails on this machine, please install
the guest additions and repackage the box to continue.

This is not an error message; everything may continue to work properly,
in which case you may ignore this message.

I came up a nice long explanation as to the root cause (tl;dr: the Vagrant Cloud Images are _never_ booted and therefore the agent doesn't report to VirtualBox its information). And then the engineer in me started to think that this might be a trivial fix. Anyhow, in the next few days, this ugly error message will disappear for our daily builds (for Raring the message is gone as of today). 

In conclusion, I wanted to say thank you to all the people who have dropped me an email for feature requests, rants and feedback. As always please feel to drop me a line, and I'll take a look at making these better.  




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Ben Howard

Earlier we announced[1] that Canonical had worked this cycle to enable more frequent releases to the Ubuntu Cloud Images stable and long term releases. As of today, we are pleased to announce that Ubuntu Server 10.04 LTS, 11.10, 12.04 LTS and 12.10 are now fully enabled to follow the kernel SRU schedule with automated update releases. This means that within 24 hours of most SRU kernel releases, a new Ubuntu Cloud Image will be published.

Please note: with this change, the release notes have been moved the http://cloud-images.ubuntu.com/releases website. You can find them under <SUITE>/release/unpacked/release-notes.txt. Effective today, all emails announcing these new updates are discontinued. 

However, at this time, 12.04 LTS and 12.10 Cloud Images are not yet being promoted automatically to Windows Azure. We expect that as Windows Azure moves closer to General Availability (i.e. moves out of preview status) that automatic promotion will be enabled.

Please use either Cloud-Images[2], the AMI Finder[3], the RSS feed[4], or "ubuntu-cloudimg-query" from the Cloud-Utils packages to find the latest released images.

[1] http://blog.utlemming.org/2013/01/ubuntu-cloud-images-automated-release.html
     https://lists.ubuntu.com/archives/ubuntu-cloud-announce/2013-January/000045.html
     https://lists.ubuntu.com/archives/ubuntu-cloud/2013-January/000879.html
     https://groups.google.com/forum/?fromgroups=#!topic/ec2ubuntu/Mg-qpfguE10
[2] http://cloud-images.ubuntu.com/releases
[3] http://cloud-images.ubuntu.com/locator/ec2/
[4] http://cloud-images.ubuntu.com/rss/

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Ben Howard



Traditionally, updates for the stable release and long term stable release Cloud Images have been on an ad-hoc basis; reasons for releasing new images were generally restricted to security, critical bugs, and stale images. This ad-hoc update cycle meant that updated images were only released every three months or so, and for older releases, as often as six months.

While quality has always been a concern and top priority, during this cycle, Canonical has worked to vastly improve the QA infrastructure to support our Cloud Images. For example, when a new kernel is released, the daily build for that image is now put through the complete QA process. This change in process has allowed us to identify and automatically evaluate whether or not an image is a good candidate for update release.


As such, we are pleased to announce in the next few weeks, we will be turning on automated updates for Ubuntu Server 10.04 LTS, 11.10, 12.04 LTS, and 12.10. This means that approximately every three to four weeks, a new, freshened image will be released. The release cadence will follow the kernel SRU process.

The first updated image to be released under this process was 10.04 LTS[1].

There are a variety of ways to find the released Cloud Images. The two easiest ways are to go the AMI Finder[2] or use http://cloud-images.ubuntu.com/releases/<SUITE>/release. For example, http://cloud-images.ubuntu.com/releases/lucid/release would bring you to the last AMI's for Ubuntu Server 10.04 LTS.

Due to this change, we will discontinuing the email notifications of updated images to the various email lists for updated images. At UDS-R in Copenhagen[3], we discussed email notifications and the decision was reached to discontinue them. Replacing email notification is the RSS feed[4] and release notes (example from 10.04 LTS)[5].

As Cloud Image suites are migrated to automated releases, we will follow up on this announcement.

Finally, for 12.04 LTS and later, this change will introduce lock-step update releases with Windows Azure. As Windows Azure moves towards GA, we have been working to have the same releases for the Ubuntu Server Cloud Images on both EC2 and Windows Azure.

As always, your feedback is most appreciated. Please feel free to follow on either this post or to email concerns direct to me.

[1] http://cloud-images.ubuntu.com/releases/lucid/release-20130124/
[2] http://cloud-images.ubuntu.com/locator/ec2/
[3] http://blueprints.launchpad.net/ubuntu/+spec/servercloud-r-cloudtesting
[4] http://cloud-images.ubuntu.com/rss/
[5] http://cloud-images.ubuntu.com/releases/lucid/release-20130124/unpacked/release_notes.txt

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Ben Howard

We are pleased to announce the immediate availability of the latest 12.04.1 (Precise Pangolin) and 12.10 (Quantal Quetzal) Cloud Images on Windows Azure, Microsoft's public cloud. These images are named:
  • 12.04.1: Ubuntu-12_04_1-LTS-amd64-20121218-en-us-30GB
  • 12.10: Ubuntu-12_10-amd64-20121218-1-en-us-30GB
Please note, that due to the way that Windows Azure Gallery works, we will not be able to maintain older images on the gallery. As new images become available, we will be expiring old images. If you need a specific version/serial of a Ubuntu Cloud Image, we strongly suggest that you snapshot and use that version.
Action required: Updates for Existing Images

ACTION REQUIRED: Update existing 12.04.1 or 12.10 images

Over the last year, it has been our pleasure to work with Microsoft to build the Ubuntu Cloud Images for Windows Azure. Microsoft is making updates to Windows Azure to further increase performance and stability of Virtual Machines, currently in preview. These updates require an action - by January 15, 2013 - on custom Linux virtual machine images that fit the definition below:

  • Any gallery Linux images captured into storage accounts from a virtual machine originally created on or before December 21, 2012
  • Any of your personal Linux images uploaded to Windows Azure on or before December 21, 2012.
To learn more about the changes that Microsoft has implemented, please see Microsoft’s announcement.
All Ubuntu users who have instances running on Windows Azure need to make sure that they take action BEFORE January 15, 2013 (else, they might find the Mayan prophecy 30 days late, as far as their instances are concerned).
If, however, you want to update existing images, then we present to you, utlemming’s tl;dr update guide (or you can use Microsoft’s guide, which does the same stuff, just with more explicit commands).

utlemming’s tl;dr update guide

From a Ubuntu perspective the changes required for 12.04 and 12.10 are:
  • CHANGE the current archive mirrors to the on-site Azure mirrors. Canonical has worked to build fast and stable regional mirrors which are co-located in each Azure region. To reduce your bandwidth costs and improve the experience of installing software, all users should update to the new mirrors.
  • CHANGE bootloader configuration to include kernel parameters of “rootdelay=300 console=ttyS0″ and drop the kernel parameter "ata_piix.disable_driver" as it is no longer beneficial and will cause harm after January 15, 2013
  • ADD hv-kvp-daemon-init, which facilitates the start of the hv-kvp-daemon and supporting scripts. The hv-kvp-daemon handles hyper-visor-to-Ubuntu communication channels.
  • ADD linux-backports-hv-{precise,quantal}-virtual (lbm module). The lbm module backports the 3.7 HV stack to support new hypervisor features, as well as increase performance and stability.
  • UPDATE walinuxagent to version 1.2. Microsoft has introduced some bug fixes to the way that provisioning of Linux images work. This updated agent will reduce provisioning failures.

   
Update Ubuntu 12.04 and 12.04.1

For those running 12.04 and 12.04.1, the following steps are needed to fully update Ubuntu to Windows Azure compatibility. Complete all eight steps to update the mirror, the kernel, and the Azure agent.
  1. sudo sed -i “s,archive.ubuntu.com,azure.archive.ubuntu.com,g” /etc/apt/sources.list
    • This step updates the mirrors to point to an Azure hosted mirror.
  2. sudo apt-add-repository ‘http://archive.canonical.com/ubuntu precise-backports main’
    • This step adds the repository needed to get the kernel and agent changes.
  3. sudo apt-get update
  4. sudo apt-get install linux-backports-modules-hv-precise-virtual
    • This step adds the update kernel and associated modules.
  5. sudo apt-get install hv-kvp-daemon-init walinuxagent
    • This step adds the updated agent.
  6. Perform the GRUB_CMDLINE_LINUX_DEFAULT steps outlined below to adjust the boot commandline options prior to your next boot.
  7. (recommended) sudo apt-get dist-upgrade
  8. sudo reboot

Update Ubuntu 12.10

For those who have already upgraded their images and area already running 12.10,  the following steps are needed to fully update Ubuntu to Windows Azure compatibility. Complete all eight steps to update the mirror, the kernel, and the Azure agent.
  1. sudo sed -i “s,archive.ubuntu.com,azure.archive.ubuntu.com,g” /etc/apt/sources.list
    • This step updates the mirrors to point to an Azure hosted mirror.
  2. sudo apt-add-repository ‘http://archive.canonical.com/ubuntu precise-backports main’
    • This step adds the repository needed to get the kernel and agent changes.
  3. sudo apt-get update
  4. sudo apt-get install linux-backports-modules-hv-precise-virtual
    • This step adds the update kernel and associated modules.
  5. sudo apt-get install hv-kvp-daemon-init walinuxagent
    • This step adds the updated agent.
  6. Perform the GRUB_CMDLINE_LINUX_DEFAULT steps outlined below to adjust the boot commandline options prior to your next boot.
  7. (recommended) sudo apt-get dist-upgrade
  8. sudo reboot

Update the Boot Loader Configuration

Ubuntu instances running on Windows Azure need to be configured for a long root delay (how long Ubuntu will wait for the root device to appear) and to output kernel messages to the serial console.

Edit /etc/default/grub and make sure that the GRUB_CMDLINE_LINUX_DEFAULT has “console=ttyS0 rootdelay=300” in it.  Remove any reference to "ata_piix.disable_driver". For example: 

GRUB_CMDLINE_LINUX_DEFAULT="console=ttyS0 rootdelay=300”Ubuntu instances running on Windows Azure should no longer be configured to disable the ata_piix driver as it is now used for simulating a CD-ROM.


An alternative to using an editor on /etc/default/grub is to just run these commands:
  1. sudo sed -i 's/GRUB_CMDLINE_LINUX_DEFAULT="/GRUB_CMDLINE_LINUX_DEFAULT="console=ttyS0 rootdelay=300 /g' /etc/default/grub
  2. sudo sed -i 's/atapiix.disable_driver//g' /etc/default/grub
Then run the following to process these grub linux command line changes:
  1. sudo update-grub
  2. (optional) sudo reboot

Bring-your-own-Ubuntu (BYOU)

Obviously, we would love for you to use the images that Canonical builds. After all, we have a team that has put in countless hours building, perfecting and QA’ing. But, if for some reason you can’t, then can we suggest that you start with our base images? You can find them here:
These VHD files are the exact base-bits that have been uploaded and registered in the Windows Azure environment. Even better, these are based on the 20121218 Amazon AWS EC2 official images with the same package version and set (except there are a few more packages to support Windows Azure).
TIP: If you use the VHD files for BYOU, cloud-init is installed. Cloud-init is the magic sauce in the Ubuntu Cloud Images that gives each instance of Ubuntu running in the cloud a personality; for Windows Azure, Cloud-Init and WALinuxAgent work side-by-side to offer the best Ubuntu experience. We have configured cloud-init for NoDataSource, which means that it will look for user-data in /var/lib/cloud/seed/nocloud-net/user-data. Simply drop your user-data script in there, and at boot time, it will be run. Also, you can edit /etc/cloud/cloud.cfg as well to use different mirrors, add SSH keys, etc. You can read more about cloud-init here: https://help.ubuntu.com/community/CloudInit
For the adventurous that like to spin their own bits, please make sure that you have the following packages installed.
  • hv-kvp-daemon-init: handles hypervisor communication with Ubuntu
  • walinuxagent: Windows Azure Linux provisioning agent and Azure fabric registration agent
  • A kernel based on 3.7 or backports of the HV stack Ubuntu 13.04 kernels support the HV stack normally.
  • Install the linux-tools-common package.
  • 12.04 and 12.10 Ubuntu kernels will need the linux-backports-hv-{precise,quantal}-virtual package installed. This package is a complete backport of the _entire_ HV stack from Ubuntu 13.04.
  • Set /etc/apt/sources.list to use the hosted-in-Azure Ubuntu mirrors (http://azure.archive.ubuntu.com), which will use the speedy mirrors local to your Azure virtual machine. WARNING: these mirrors are dreadfully slow outside Azure.
Follow the Windows Azure recommendations for publication.
NOTE: It is very hard to generate a VHD file that is compatible with Windows Azure using open-source tools without playing a very annoying and disk-space intensive dance. For this reason we strongly recommend using the VHD files above, or using the in-Azure images and taking a snapshot.

Special thanks

The Ubuntu Cloud Image team recognizes that the success on Windows Azure would not be possible if not for the amazing help and special talents of Adam Conrad (infinity), Andy Whitcroft (apw) and the QA and Certification staff, as well as our fine colleagues at Microsoft.

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