Canonical Voices

Posts tagged with 'cloud'


Chinese e-commerce giant Alibaba is upping its investment in cloud computing in the United States, making it more of a competitor to Amazon, Google, and Microsoft than ever before.
Alibaba’s cloud division, Aliyun, has signed a series of new partnerships with the likes of Intel and data center company Equinix to localize its cloud offerings without having to build its own new data centers, CNBC’s Arjun Kharpal reports.

The slew of partnerships, which Alibaba is calling its Marketplace Alliance Program, focuses on expanding its cloud services globally, not just the US. Besides Equinix and Intel, it also signed a deal with Singtel in Singapore.

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Robbie Williamson

A buffer overflow in the virtual floppy disk controller of QEMU has been discovered. An attacker could use this issue to cause QEMU to crash or execute arbitrary code in the host’s QEMU process.

This issue is mitigated in a couple ways on Ubuntu when using libvirt to manage QEMU virtual machines, which includes OpenStack’s use of QEMU. The QEMU process in the host environment is owned by a special libvirt-qemu user which helps to limit access to resources in the host environment. Additionally, the QEMU process is confined by an AppArmor profile that significantly lessens the impact of a vulnerability such as VENOM by reducing the host environment’s attack surface.

A fix for this issue has been committed in the upstream QEMU source code tracker. Ubuntu 12.04 LTS, Ubuntu 14.04 LTS, Ubuntu 14.10, and Ubuntu 15.04 are affected. To address the issue, ensure that qemu-kvm 1.0+noroms-0ubuntu14.22 (Ubuntu 12.04 LTS), qemu 2.0.0+dfsg-2ubuntu1.11 (Ubuntu 14.04 LTS), qemu 2.1+dfsg-4ubuntu6.6 (Ubuntu 14.10), qemu 1:2.2+dfsg-5expubuntu9.1 (Ubuntu 15.04) are installed.

For reference, the Ubuntu Security Notices website is the best place to find information on security updates and the affected supported releases of Ubuntu.  Users can get notifications via email and RSS feeds from the USN site, as well as access the Ubuntu CVE Tracker.

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For the first time Amazon has revealed its numbers for AWS.

In its latest financial earnings report, Amazon said AWS grew 49 percent in 2014, pulling in $4.6 billion in revenue. After reaching $1.57 billion in the first quarter of this year, AWS is on track for $6.23 billion in sales by year’s end, the company said. Though its cloud business still accounted for only 7 percent of the company’s overall quarterly revenue of $22.72 billion, AWS is growing at a much faster rate than the rest of Amazon (AWS grew 49 percent, while the company’s core North American business grew 22 percent). And contrary to what the company has indicated in the past, its margins are significantly higher with AWS.

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Ben Howard

I am pleased to announce initial Vagrant images [1, 2]. These images are bit-for-bit the same as the KVM images, but have a Cloud-init configuration that allows Snappy to work within the Vagrant workflow.

Vagrant enables a cross platform developer experience on MacOS, Windows or Linux [3].

Note: due to the way that Snappy works, shared file systems within Vagrant is not possible at this time. We are working on getting the shared file system support enabled, but it will take us a little bit to get going.

If you want to use Vagrant packaged in the Ubuntu archives, in a terminal run::

  • sudo apt-get -y install vagrant
  • cd <WORKSPACE>
  • vagrant init 
  • vagrant up
  • vagrant ssh
If you use Vagrant from [4] (i.e Windows, Mac or install the latest Vagrant) then you can run:
  • vagrant init ubuntu/ubuntu-15.04-snappy-core-edge-amd64
  • vagrant up
  • vagrant ssh

These images are a work in progress. If you encounter any issues, please report them to "" or ping me (utlemming) on



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Ben Howard

Back when we announced that the Ubuntu 14.04 LTS Cloud Images on Azure were using the Hardware Enablement Kernel (HWE), the immediate feedback was "what about 12.04?"

Well, the next Ubuntu 12.04 Cloud Images on Microsoft Azure will start using the HWE kernel. We have been working with Microsoft to validate using the 3.13 kernel on 12.04 and are pleased with the results and the stability. We spent a lot of time thinking about and testing this change, and in conference with the Ubuntu Kernel, Foundations and Cloud Image teams, feel this change will give the best experience on Microsoft Azure. 

By default, the HWE kernel is used on official images for Ubuntu 12.04 on VMware Air, Google Compute Engine, and now Microsoft Azure. 

Any 12.04 Image published to Azure with a serial later than 20140225 will default to the new HWE kernel. 

Users who want to upgrade their existing instance can simply run:
  • sudo apt-get update
  • sudo apt-get install linux-image-hwe-generic linux-cloud-tools-generic-lts-trusty
  • reboot

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Ben Howard

One of the perennial problems in the Cloud is knowing what is the most current image and where to find it. Some Clouds provide a nice GUI console, an API, or some combination. But what has been missing is a "dashboard" showing Ubuntu across multiple Clouds.

In that light, I am please to announce that we have a new beta Cloud Image Finder. This page shows where official Ubuntu images are available. As with all betas, we have some kinks to work out, like gathering up links for our Cloud Partners (so clicking an Image ID launches an image). I envision that in the future this locator page will be the default landing page for our Cloud Image Page..

The need for this page became painfully apparent yesterday as I was working through the fallout of the Ghost Vulnerability (aka CVE 2015-0235). The Cloud Image team had spent a good amount of time pushing our images to AWS, Azure, GCE, Joyent and then notifying our partners like Brightbox, DreamCompute, CloudSigma and VMware of new builds. I realized that we needed a single place for our users to just look and see where the builds are available. And so I hacked up the EC2 Locator page to display other clouds.  

Please note: this new page only shows stable releases. We push a lot of images and did not want to confuse things by showing betas, alphas, dailies or the development builds. Rather, this page will only show images that have been put through the complete QA process and are ready for production work loads. 

This new locator page is backed by Simple Streams, which is our machine-formatted data service. Simple Streams provides a way of locating images in uniform way across the cloud. Essentially our new Locator Page is just a viewer of the Simple Stream Data.

Hopefully our users will find this new page useful. Feedback is always welcome. Please feel free to drop me a line (utlemming @ ubuntu dot com). 

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Ben Howard

A few years ago when our fine friends on the kernel team introduced the idea of the "hardware enablement" (HWE) kernel, those of us in the Cloud world looked at it as curiosity. We thought that by in large, the HWE kernel would not be needed or wanted for Virtual Cloud instances.

And we were wrong.

So wrong in fact, that the HWE kernel has found its way into the Vagrant Cloud Images, VMware's vCHS, and Google's Compute engine as the default kernel for the Certified Images. The main reason for these requests is that virtual hardware moves at a fairly quick pace. Unlike traditional hardware, Virtual Hardware can be fixed and patched at the speed that software can be deployed.

The feedback in regards to Azure has been the same: users and Microsoft has asked for the HWE kernel consistently. Microsoft has validated that the HWE kernel (3.16) running Ubuntu 14.04 on Windows Azures passes their validation testing. In our testing, we have validated that the 3.16 kernel works quite well in Azure.

For Azure users, using the 3.16 HWE kernel brings SMB 2.1 copy file support and updates LIS drivers.

Therefore, starting with the latest Windows Azure image [1], all the Ubuntu 14.04 images will track the latest hardware enablement kernel. That means that all the goodness in Ubuntu 14.10's kernel will be the default for 14.04 users launching our official images on Windows Azure.

If you want to install the LTS kernel on your existing instance(s), simply run:

  • sudo apt-get update
  • sudo apt-get install linux-image-virtual-lts-utopic linux-lts-utopic-cloud-tools-common walinuxagent
  • sudo reboot

[1] b39f27a8b8c64d52b05eac6a62ebad85__Ubuntu-14_04_1-LTS-amd64-server-20150123-en-us-30GB

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Dustin Kirkland

With the recent introduction of Snappy Ubuntu, there are now several different ways to extend and update (apt-get vs. snappy) multiple flavors of Ubuntu (Core, Desktop, and Server).

We've put together this matrix with a few examples of where we think Traditional Ubuntu (apt-get) and Transactional Ubuntu (snappy) might make sense in your environment.  Note that this is, of course, not a comprehensive list.

Ubuntu Core
Ubuntu Desktop
Ubuntu Server
Traditional apt-get
Minimal Docker and LXC imagesDesktop, Laptop, Personal WorkstationsBaremetal, MAAS, OpenStack, General Purpose Cloud Images
Transactional snappy
Minimal IoT Devices and Micro-Services Architecture Cloud ImagesTouch, Phones, TabletsComfy, Human Developer Interaction (over SSH) in an atomically updated environment

I've presupposed a few of the questions you might ask, while you're digesting this new landscape...

Q: I'm looking for the smallest possible Ubuntu image that still supports apt-get...
A: You want our Traditional Ubuntu Core. This is often useful in building Docker and LXC containers.

Q: I'm building the next wearable IoT device/drone/robot, and perhaps deploying a fleet of atomically updated micro-services to the cloud...
A: You want Snappy Ubuntu Core.

Q: I want to install the best damn Linux on my laptop, desktop, or personal workstation, with industry best security practices, 30K+ freely available open source packages, freely available, with extensive support for hardware devices and proprietary add-ons...
A: You want the same Ubuntu Desktop that we've been shipping for 10+ years, on time, every time ;-)

Q: I want that same converged, tasteful Ubuntu experience on your personal, smart devices like my Phones and Tablets...
A: You want Ubuntu Touch, which is a very graphical human interface focused expression of Snappy Ubuntu.

Q: I'm deploying Linux onto bare metal servers at scale in the data center, perhaps building IaaS clouds using OpenStack or PaaS cloud using CloudFoundry? And I'm launching general purpose Linux server instances in public clouds (like AWS, Azure, or GCE) and private clouds...
A: You want the traditional apt-get Ubuntu Server.

Q: I'm developing and debugging applications, services, or frameworks for Snappy Ubuntu devices or cloud instances?
A: You want Comfy Ubuntu Server, which is a command line human interface extension of Snappy Ubuntu, with a number of conveniences and amenities (ssh, byobu, manpages, editors, etc.) that won't be typically included in the minimal Snappy Ubuntu Core build. [*Note that the Comfy images will be available very soon]


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Ben Howard

Snappy Launches

When we launched Snappy, we introduced it on Microsoft Azure [1], Google’s GCE [2], Amazon’s AWS [3] and our KVM images [4]. Immediately our developers were asking questions like, “where’s the Vagrant images”, which we launched yesterday [5].

The one final remaining question was “where are the images for <insert hypervisor>”. We had inquiries about Virtualbox, VMware Desktop/Fusion, interest in VMware Air, Citrix XenServer, etc.

OVA to the rescue

OVA is an industry standard for cross-hypervisor image support. The OVA spec [6] allows you to import a single image to:

  • VMware products
    • ESXi
    • Desktop
    • Fusion
    • VSphere
  • Virtualbox
  • Citrix XenServer
  • Microsoft SCVMM
  • Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization
  • SuSE Studio
  • Oracle VM

Okay, so where can I get the OVA images?

To get the latest OVA image, you can get it from here [7]. From there, you will need to follow your hypervisor instructions on importing OVA images. 

Or if you want a short URL,



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Amazon EC2 was the most reliable compute and Google Cloud Storage was the most reliable storage.

The Laguna Beach, California company tracks status of more than 30 clouds from AWS to Zettagrid:

Service provider Outrages Downtime
Amazon EC2  20  2.41 Hours
Amazon S3  23  2.69 Hours
Google Compute Engine  72  4.41 Hours
Google Cloud Storage 8  14.23 Minutes
Microsoft Azure Virtual machines  92  40 Hours
Microsoft Azure Object Storage  141  10.97 Hours

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Dustin Kirkland

Awww snap!

That's right!  Snappy Ubuntu images are now on AWS, for your EC2 computing pleasure.

Enjoy this screencast as we start a Snappy Ubuntu instance in AWS, and install the xkcd-webserver package.

And a transcript of the commands follows below.

kirkland@x230:/tmp⟫ cat cloud.cfg
ssh_enabled: True
kirkland@x230:/tmp⟫ aws ec2 describe-images \
> --region us-east-1 \
> --image-ids ami-5c442634

"Images": [
"ImageType": "machine",
"Description": "ubuntu-core-devel-1418912739-141-amd64",
"Hypervisor": "xen",
"ImageLocation": "ucore-images/ubuntu-core-devel-1418912739-141-amd64.manifest.xml",
"SriovNetSupport": "simple",
"ImageId": "ami-5c442634",
"RootDeviceType": "instance-store",
"Architecture": "x86_64",
"BlockDeviceMappings": [],
"State": "available",
"VirtualizationType": "hvm",
"Name": "ubuntu-core-devel-1418912739-141-amd64",
"OwnerId": "649108100275",
"Public": false
kirkland@x230:/tmp⟫ # NOTE: This AMI will almost certainly have changed by the time you're watching this ;-)
kirkland@x230:/tmp⟫ clear
kirkland@x230:/tmp⟫ aws ec2 run-instances \
> --region us-east-1 \
> --image-id ami-5c442634 \
> --key-name id_rsa \
> --instance-type m3.medium \
> --user-data "$(cat cloud.cfg)"
"ReservationId": "r-c6811e28",
"Groups": [
"GroupName": "default",
"GroupId": "sg-d5d135bc"
"OwnerId": "357813986684",
"Instances": [
"KeyName": "id_rsa",
"PublicDnsName": null,
"ProductCodes": [],
"StateTransitionReason": null,
"LaunchTime": "2014-12-18T17:29:07.000Z",
"Monitoring": {
"State": "disabled"
"ClientToken": null,
"StateReason": {
"Message": "pending",
"Code": "pending"
"RootDeviceType": "instance-store",
"Architecture": "x86_64",
"PrivateDnsName": null,
"ImageId": "ami-5c442634",
"BlockDeviceMappings": [],
"Placement": {
"GroupName": null,
"AvailabilityZone": "us-east-1e",
"Tenancy": "default"
"AmiLaunchIndex": 0,
"VirtualizationType": "hvm",
"NetworkInterfaces": [],
"SecurityGroups": [
"GroupName": "default",
"GroupId": "sg-d5d135bc"
"State": {
"Name": "pending",
"Code": 0
"Hypervisor": "xen",
"InstanceId": "i-af43de51",
"InstanceType": "m3.medium",
"EbsOptimized": false
kirkland@x230:/tmp⟫ aws ec2 describe-instances --region us-east-1 | grep PublicIpAddress
"PublicIpAddress": "",
kirkland@x230:/tmp⟫ ssh -i ~/.ssh/id_rsa ubuntu@
ssh: connect to host port 22: Connection refused
255 kirkland@x230:/tmp⟫ ssh -i ~/.ssh/id_rsa ubuntu@
The authenticity of host ' (' can't be established.
RSA key fingerprint is 91:91:6e:0a:54:a5:07:b9:79:30:5b:61:d4:a8:ce:6f.
No matching host key fingerprint found in DNS.
Are you sure you want to continue connecting (yes/no)? yes
Warning: Permanently added '' (RSA) to the list of known hosts.
Welcome to Ubuntu Vivid Vervet (development branch) (GNU/Linux 3.16.0-25-generic x86_64)

* Documentation:

The programs included with the Ubuntu system are free software;
the exact distribution terms for each program are described in the
individual files in /usr/share/doc/*/copyright.

Ubuntu comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY, to the extent permitted by
applicable law.

Welcome to the Ubuntu Core rolling development release.

* See

It's a brave new world here in snappy Ubuntu Core! This machine
does not use apt-get or deb packages. Please see 'snappy --help'
for app installation and transactional updates.

To run a command as administrator (user "root"), use "sudo ".
See "man sudo_root" for details.

ubuntu@ip-10-153-149-47:~$ mount
sysfs on /sys type sysfs (rw,nosuid,nodev,noexec,relatime)
proc on /proc type proc (rw,nosuid,nodev,noexec,relatime)
udev on /dev type devtmpfs (rw,relatime,size=1923976k,nr_inodes=480994,mode=755)
devpts on /dev/pts type devpts (rw,nosuid,noexec,relatime,gid=5,mode=620,ptmxmode=000)
tmpfs on /run type tmpfs (rw,nosuid,noexec,relatime,size=385432k,mode=755)
/dev/xvda1 on / type ext4 (ro,relatime,data=ordered)
/dev/xvda3 on /writable type ext4 (rw,relatime,discard,data=ordered)
tmpfs on /run type tmpfs (rw,nosuid,noexec,relatime,mode=755)
tmpfs on /etc/fstab type tmpfs (rw,nosuid,noexec,relatime,mode=755)
/dev/xvda3 on /etc/systemd/system type ext4 (rw,relatime,discard,data=ordered)
securityfs on /sys/kernel/security type securityfs (rw,nosuid,nodev,noexec,relatime)
tmpfs on /dev/shm type tmpfs (rw,nosuid,nodev)
tmpfs on /run/lock type tmpfs (rw,nosuid,nodev,noexec,relatime,size=5120k)
tmpfs on /sys/fs/cgroup type tmpfs (ro,nosuid,nodev,noexec,mode=755)
cgroup on /sys/fs/cgroup/systemd type cgroup (rw,nosuid,nodev,noexec,relatime,xattr,release_agent=/lib/systemd/systemd-cgroups-agent,name=systemd)
pstore on /sys/fs/pstore type pstore (rw,nosuid,nodev,noexec,relatime)
cgroup on /sys/fs/cgroup/cpuset type cgroup (rw,nosuid,nodev,noexec,relatime,cpuset,clone_children)
cgroup on /sys/fs/cgroup/cpu,cpuacct type cgroup (rw,nosuid,nodev,noexec,relatime,cpu,cpuacct)
cgroup on /sys/fs/cgroup/memory type cgroup (rw,nosuid,nodev,noexec,relatime,memory)
cgroup on /sys/fs/cgroup/devices type cgroup (rw,nosuid,nodev,noexec,relatime,devices)
cgroup on /sys/fs/cgroup/freezer type cgroup (rw,nosuid,nodev,noexec,relatime,freezer)
cgroup on /sys/fs/cgroup/net_cls,net_prio type cgroup (rw,nosuid,nodev,noexec,relatime,net_cls,net_prio)
cgroup on /sys/fs/cgroup/blkio type cgroup (rw,nosuid,nodev,noexec,relatime,blkio)
cgroup on /sys/fs/cgroup/perf_event type cgroup (rw,nosuid,nodev,noexec,relatime,perf_event)
cgroup on /sys/fs/cgroup/hugetlb type cgroup (rw,nosuid,nodev,noexec,relatime,hugetlb)
tmpfs on /etc/machine-id type tmpfs (ro,relatime,size=385432k,mode=755)
systemd-1 on /proc/sys/fs/binfmt_misc type autofs (rw,relatime,fd=22,pgrp=1,timeout=300,minproto=5,maxproto=5,direct)
hugetlbfs on /dev/hugepages type hugetlbfs (rw,relatime)
debugfs on /sys/kernel/debug type debugfs (rw,relatime)
mqueue on /dev/mqueue type mqueue (rw,relatime)
fusectl on /sys/fs/fuse/connections type fusectl (rw,relatime)
/dev/xvda3 on /etc/hosts type ext4 (rw,relatime,discard,data=ordered)
/dev/xvda3 on /etc/sudoers.d type ext4 (rw,relatime,discard,data=ordered)
/dev/xvda3 on /root type ext4 (rw,relatime,discard,data=ordered)
/dev/xvda3 on /var/lib/click/frameworks type ext4 (rw,relatime,discard,data=ordered)
/dev/xvda3 on /usr/share/click/frameworks type ext4 (rw,relatime,discard,data=ordered)
/dev/xvda3 on /var/lib/systemd/snappy type ext4 (rw,relatime,discard,data=ordered)
/dev/xvda3 on /var/lib/systemd/click type ext4 (rw,relatime,discard,data=ordered)
/dev/xvda3 on /var/lib/initramfs-tools type ext4 (rw,relatime,discard,data=ordered)
/dev/xvda3 on /etc/writable type ext4 (rw,relatime,discard,data=ordered)
/dev/xvda3 on /etc/ssh type ext4 (rw,relatime,discard,data=ordered)
/dev/xvda3 on /var/tmp type ext4 (rw,relatime,discard,data=ordered)
/dev/xvda3 on /var/lib/apparmor type ext4 (rw,relatime,discard,data=ordered)
/dev/xvda3 on /var/cache/apparmor type ext4 (rw,relatime,discard,data=ordered)
/dev/xvda3 on /etc/apparmor.d/cache type ext4 (rw,relatime,discard,data=ordered)
/dev/xvda3 on /etc/ufw type ext4 (rw,relatime,discard,data=ordered)
/dev/xvda3 on /var/log type ext4 (rw,relatime,discard,data=ordered)
/dev/xvda3 on /var/lib/system-image type ext4 (rw,relatime,discard,data=ordered)
tmpfs on /var/lib/sudo type tmpfs (rw,relatime,mode=700)
/dev/xvda3 on /var/lib/logrotate type ext4 (rw,relatime,discard,data=ordered)
/dev/xvda3 on /var/lib/dhcp type ext4 (rw,relatime,discard,data=ordered)
/dev/xvda3 on /var/lib/dbus type ext4 (rw,relatime,discard,data=ordered)
/dev/xvda3 on /var/lib/cloud type ext4 (rw,relatime,discard,data=ordered)
/dev/xvda3 on /var/lib/apps type ext4 (rw,relatime,discard,data=ordered)
tmpfs on /mnt type tmpfs (rw,relatime)
tmpfs on /tmp type tmpfs (rw,relatime)
/dev/xvda3 on /apps type ext4 (rw,relatime,discard,data=ordered)
/dev/xvda3 on /home type ext4 (rw,relatime,discard,data=ordered)
/dev/xvdb on /mnt type ext3 (rw,relatime,data=ordered)
tmpfs on /run/user/1000 type tmpfs (rw,nosuid,nodev,relatime,size=385432k,mode=700,uid=1000,gid=1000)
ubuntu@ip-10-153-149-47:~$ mount | grep " / "
/dev/xvda1 on / type ext4 (ro,relatime,data=ordered)
ubuntu@ip-10-153-149-47:~$ sudo touch /foo
touch: cannot touch ‘/foo’: Read-only file system
ubuntu@ip-10-153-149-47:~$ sudo apt-get update
Ubuntu Core does not use apt-get, see 'snappy --help'!
ubuntu@ip-10-153-149-47:~$ sudo snappy --help
Usage:snappy [-h] [-v]

snappy command line interface

optional arguments:
-h, --help show this help message and exit
-v, --version Print this version string and exit

rollback undo last system-image update.
fake-version ==SUPPRESS==
nap ==SUPPRESS==
ubuntu@ip-10-153-149-47:~$ sudo snappy info
release: ubuntu-core/devel
ubuntu@ip-10-153-149-47:~$ sudo snappy versions -a
Part Tag Installed Available Fingerprint Active
ubuntu-core edge 141 - 7f068cb4fa876c *
ubuntu@ip-10-153-149-47:~$ sudo snappy search docker
Part Version Description
docker The docker app deployment mechanism
ubuntu@ip-10-153-149-47:~$ sudo snappy install docker
docker 4 MB [=============================================================================================================] OK
Part Tag Installed Available Fingerprint Active
docker edge - b1f2f85e77adab *
ubuntu@ip-10-153-149-47:~$ sudo snappy versions -a
Part Tag Installed Available Fingerprint Active
ubuntu-core edge 141 - 7f068cb4fa876c *
docker edge - b1f2f85e77adab *
ubuntu@ip-10-153-149-47:~$ sudo snappy search webserver
Part Version Description
go-example-webserver 1.0.1 Minimal Golang webserver for snappy
xkcd-webserver 0.3.1 Show random XKCD compic via a build-in webserver
ubuntu@ip-10-153-149-47:~$ sudo snappy install xkcd-webserver
xkcd-webserver 21 kB [=====================================================================================================] OK
Part Tag Installed Available Fingerprint Active
xkcd-webserver edge 0.3.1 - 3a9152b8bff494 *
ubuntu@ip-10-153-149-47:~$ exit
Connection to closed.
kirkland@x230:/tmp⟫ ec2-instances
kirkland@x230:/tmp⟫ ec2-terminate-instances i-af43de51
INSTANCE i-af43de51 running shutting-down


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Dustin Kirkland

As promised last week, we're now proud to introduce Ubuntu Snappy images on another of our public cloud partners -- Google Compute Engine.
In the video below, you can join us walking through the instructions we have published here.
Snap it up!

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Dustin Kirkland

A couple of months ago, I re-introduced an old friend -- Ubuntu JeOS (Just enough OS) -- the smallest, (merely 63MB compressed!) functional OS image that we can still call “Ubuntu”.  In fact, we call it Ubuntu Core.

That post was a prelude to something we’ve been actively developing at Canonical for most of 2014 -- Snappy Ubuntu Core!  Snappy Ubuntu combines the best of the ground-breaking image-based Ubuntu remix known as Ubuntu Touch for phones and tablets with the base Ubuntu server operating system trusted by millions of instances in the cloud.

Snappy introduces transactional updates and atomic, image based workflows -- old ideas implemented in databases for decades -- adapted to Ubuntu cloud and server ecosystems for the emerging cloud design patterns known as microservice architectures.

The underlying, base operating system is a very lean Ubuntu Core installation, running on a read-only system partition, much like your iOS, Android, or Ubuntu phone.  One or more “frameworks” can be installed through the snappy command, which is an adaptation of the click packaging system we developed for the Ubuntu Phone.  Perhaps the best sample framework is Docker.  Applications are also packaged and installed using snappy, but apps run within frameworks.  This means that any of the thousands of Docker images available in DockerHub are trivially installable as snap packages, running on the Docker framework in Snappy Ubuntu.

Take Snappy for a Drive

You can try Snappy for yourself in minutes!

You can download Snappy and launch it in a local virtual machine like this:

$ wget
$ kvm -m 512 -redir :2222::22 -redir :4443::443 ubuntu-core-alpha-01.img

Then, SSH into it with password 'ubuntu':

$ ssh -p 2222 ubuntu@localhost

At this point, you might want to poke around the system.  Take a look at the mount points, and perhaps try to touch or modify some files.

$ sudo rm /sbin/init
rm: cannot remove ‘/sbin/init’: Permission denied
$ sudo touch /foo

touch: cannot touch ‘foo’: Permission denied
$ apt-get install docker
apt-get: command not found

Rather, let's have a look at the new snappy package manager:

$ sudo snappy --help

And now, let’s install the Docker framework:

$ sudo snappy install docker

At this point, we can do essentially anything available in the Docker ecosystem!

Now, we’ve created some sample Snappy apps using existing Docker containers.  For one example, let’s now install OwnCloud:

$ sudo snappy install owncloud

This will take a little while to install, but eventually, you can point a browser at your own private OwnCloud image, running within a Docker container, on your brand new Ubuntu Snappy system.

We can also update the entire system with a simple command and a reboot:
$ sudo snappy versions
$ sudo snappy update
$ sudo reboot

And we can rollback to the previous version!
$ sudo snappy rollback
$ sudo reboot

Here's a short screencast of all of the above...

While the downloadable image is available for your local testing today, you will very soon be able to launch Snappy Ubuntu instances in your favorite public (Azure, GCE, AWS) and private clouds (OpenStack).


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Colin Ian King

Before I started some analysis on benchmarking various popular file systems on Linux I was recommended to read "Systems Performance: Enterprise  and the Cloud" by Brendan Gregg.

In today's modern server and cloud based systems the multi-layered complexity can make it hard to pin point performance issues and bottlenecks. This book is packed full useful analysis techniques covering tracing, kernel internals, tools and benchmarking.

Critical to getting a well balanced and tuned system are all the different components, and the book has chapters covering CPU optimisation (cores, threading, caching and internconnects),  memory optimisation (virtual memory, paging, swapping, allocators, busses),  file system I/O, storage, networking (protcols, sockets, physical connections) and typical issues facing cloud computing.

The book is full of very useful examples and practical instructions on how to drill down and discover performance issues in a system and also includes some real-world case studies too.

It has helped me become even more focused on how to analyse performance issues and consider how to do deep system instrumentation to be able to understand where any why performance regressions occur.

All-in-all, a most systematic and well written book that I'd recommend to anyone running large complex servers and cloud computing environments.

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Ben Howard

We are pleased to announce that Ubuntu 12.04 LTS, 14.04 LTS, and 14.10 are now in beta on Google Compute Engine [1, 2, 3].

These images support both the traditional user-data as well the Google Compute Engine startup scripts. We have included the Google Cloud SDK, pre-installed as well. Users coming from other Clouds can expect to have the same great experience as on other clouds, while enjoying the features of Google Compute Engine.

From an engineering perspective, a lot of us are excited to see this launch. While we don't expect too many rough edges, it is a beta, so feedback is welcome. Please file bugs or join us in #ubuntu-server on Freenode to report any issues (ping me, utlemming, rcj or Odd_Bloke).

Finally, I wanted to thank those that have helped on this project. Launching a cloud is not an easy engineering task. You have have build infrastructure to support the new cloud, create tooling to build and publish, write QA stacks, and do packaging work. All of this spans multiple teams and disciplines. The support from Google and Canonical's Foundations and Kernel teams have been instrumental in this launch, as well the engineers on the Certified Public Cloud team.

Getting the Google Cloud SDK:

As part of the launch, Canonical and Google have been working together on packaging a version of the Google Cloud SDK. At this time, we are unable to bring it into the main archives. However, you can find it in our partner archive.

To install it run the following:

  • echo "deb $(lsb_release -c -s) partner" | sudo tee /etc/apt/sources.list.d/partner.list
  • sudo apt-get update
  • sudo apt-get -y install google-cloud-sdk

Then follow the instruction for using the Cloud SDK at [4]


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Jane Silber

Today marks 10 years of Ubuntu and the release of the 21st version. That is an incredible milestone and one which is worthy of reflection and celebration. I am fortunate enough to be spending the day at our devices sprint with 200+ of the folks that have helped make this possible. There are of course hundreds of others in Canonical and thousands in the community who have helped as well. The atmosphere here includes a lot of reminiscing about the early days and re-telling of the funny stories, and there is a palpable excitement in the air about the future. That same excitement was present at a Canonical Cloud Summit in Brussels last week.

The team here is closing in on shipping our first phone, marking a new era in Ubuntu’s history. There has been excellent work recently to close bugs and improve quality, and our partner BQ is as pleased with the results as we are. We are on the home stretch to this milestone, and are still on track to have Ubuntu phones in the market this year. Further, there is an impressive array of further announcements and phones lined up for 2015.

But of course that’s not all we do – the Ubuntu team and community continue to put out rock solid, high quality Ubuntu desktop releases like clockwork – the 21st of which will be released today. And with the same precision, our PC OEM team continues to make that great work available on a pre-installed basis on millions of PCs across hundreds of machine configurations. That’s an unparalleled achievement, and we really have changed the landscape of Linux and open source over the last decade. The impact of Ubuntu can be seen in countless ways – from the individuals, schools, and enterprises who now use Ubuntu; to proliferation of Codes of Conduct in open source communities; to the acceptance of faster (and near continuous) release cycles for operating systems; to the unique company/community collaboration that makes Ubuntu possible; to the vast number of developers who have now grown up with Ubuntu and in an open source world; to the many, many, many technical innovations to come out of Ubuntu, from single-CD installation in years past to the more recent work on image-based updates.

Ubuntu Server also sprang from our early desktop roots, and has now grown into the leading solution for scale out computing. Ubuntu and our suite of cloud products and services is the premier choice for any customer or partner looking to operate at scale, and it is indeed a “scale-out” world. From easy to consume Ubuntu images on public clouds; to managed cloud infrastructure via BootStack; to standard on-premise, self-managed clouds via Ubuntu OpenStack; to instant solutions delivered on any substrate via Juju, we are the leaders in a highly competitive, dynamic space. The agility, reliability and superior execution that have brought us to today’s milestone remains a critical competency for our cloud team. And as we release Ubuntu 14.10 today, which includes the latest OpenStack, new versions of our tooling such as MaaS and Juju, and initial versions of scale-out solutions for big data and Cloud Foundry, we build on a ten year history of “firsts”.

All Ubuntu releases seem to have their own personality, and Utopic is a fitting way to commemorate the realisation of a decade of vision, hard work and collaboration. We are poised on the edge of a very different decade in Canonical’s history, one in which we’ll carry forward the applicable successes and patterns, but will also forge a new path in the twin worlds of converged devices and scale-out computing. Thanks to everyone who has contributed to the journey thus far. Now, on to Vivid and the next ten years!

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Robbie Williamson

The following is an update on Ubuntu’s response to the latest Internet emergency security issue, POODLE (CVE-2014-3566), in combination with an
SSLv3 downgrade vulnerability.

Vulnerability Summary

“SSL 3.0 is an obsolete and insecure protocol. While for most practical purposes it has been replaced by its successors TLS 1.0, TLS 1.1, and TLS 1.2, many TLS implementations remain backwards­ compatible with SSL 3.0 to interoperate with legacy systems in the interest of a smooth user experience. The protocol handshake provides for authenticated version negotiation, so normally the latest protocol version common to the client and the server will be used.” –

A vulnerability was discovered that affects the protocol negotiation between browsers and HTTP servers, where a man-in-the-middle (MITM) attacker is able trigger a protocol downgrade (ie, force downgrade to SSLv3, CVE to be assigned).  Additionally, a new attack was discovered against the CBC block cipher used in SSLv3 (POODLE, CVE-2014-3566).  Because of this new weakness in the CBC block cipher and the known weaknesses in the RC4 stream cipher (both used with SSLv3), attackers who successfully downgrade the victim’s connection to SSLv3 can now exploit the weaknesses of these ciphers to ascertain the plaintext of portions of the connection through brute force attacks.  For example, an attacker who is able to manipulate the encrypted connection is able to steal HTTP cookies.  Note, the protocol downgrade vulnerability exists in web browsers and is not implemented in the ssl libraries.  Therefore, the downgrade attack is currently known to exist only for HTTP.

OpenSSL will be updated to guard against illegal protocol negotiation downgrades (TLS_FALLBACK_SCSV).  When the server and client are updated to use TLS_FALLBACK_SCSV, the protocol cannot be downgraded to below the highest protocol that is supported between the two (so if the client and the server both support TLS 1.2, SSLv3 cannot be used even if the server offers SSLv3).

The recommended course of action is ultimately for sites to disable SSLv3 on their servers, and for browsers to disable SSLv3 by default since the SSLv3 protocol is known to be broken.  However, it will take time for sites to disable SSLv3, and some sites will choose not to, in order to support legacy browsers (eg, IE6).  As a result, immediately disabling SSLv3 in Ubuntu in the openssl libraries, in servers or in browsers, will break sites that still rely on SSLv3.

Ubuntu’s Response:

Unfortunately, this issue cannot be addressed in a single USN because this is a vulnerability in a protocol, and the Internet must respond accordingly (ie SSLv3 must be disabled everywhere).  Ubuntu’s response provides a path forward to transition users towards safe defaults:

  • Add TLS_FALLBACK_SCSV to openssl in a USN:  In progress, upstream openssl is bundling this patch with other fixes that we will incorporate
  • Follow Google’s lead regarding chromium and chromium content api (as used in oxide):
    • Add TLS_FALLBACK_SCSV support to chromium and oxide:  Done – Added by Google months ago.
    • Disable fallback to SSLv3 in next major version:  In Progress
    • Disable SSLv3 in future version:  In Progress
  • Follow Mozilla’s lead regarding Mozilla products:
    • Disable SSLv3 by default in Firefox 34:  In Progress – due Nov 25
    • Add TLS_FALLBACK_SCSV support in Firefox 35:  In Progress

Ubuntu currently will not:

  • Disable SSLv3 in the OpenSSL libraries at this time, so as not to break compatibility where it is needed
  • Disable SSLv3 in Apache, nginx, etc, so as not to break compatibility where it is needed
  • Preempt Google’s and Mozilla’s plans.  The timing of their response is critical to giving sites an opportunity to migrate away from SSLv3 to minimize regressions

For more information on Ubuntu security notices that affect the current supported releases of Ubuntu, or to report a security vulnerability in an Ubuntu package, please visit


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It’s great to see more and more packages in Debian and Ubuntu getting an autopkgtest. We now have some 660, and soon we’ll get another ~ 4000 from Perl and Ruby packages. Both Debian’s and Ubuntu’s autopkgtest runner machines are currently static manually maintained machines which ache under their load. They just don’t scale, and at least Ubuntu’s runners need quite a lot of handholding.

This needs to stop. To quote Tim “The Tool Man” Taylor: We need more power!. This is a perfect scenario to be put into a cloud with ephemeral VMs to run tests in. They scale, there is no privacy problem, and maintenance of the hosts then becomes Somebody Else’s Problem.

I recently brushed up autopkgtest’s ssh runner and the Nova setup script. Previous versions didn’t support “revert” yet, tests that leaked processes caused eternal hangs due to the way ssh works, and image building wasn’t yet supported well. autopkgtest 3.5.5 now gets along with all that and has a dozen other fixes. So let me introduce the Binford 6100 variable horsepower DEP-8 engine python-coated cloud test runner!

While you can run adt-run from your home machine, it’s probably better to do it from an “autopkgtest controller” cloud instance as well. Testing frequently requires copying files and built package trees between testbeds and controller, which can be quite slow from home and causes timeouts. The requirements on the “controller” node are quite low — you either need the autopkgtest 3.5.5 package installed (possibly a backport to Debian Wheezy or Ubuntu 12.04 LTS), or run it from git ($checkout_dir/run-from-checkout), and other than that you only need python-novaclient and the usual $OS_* OpenStack environment variables. This controller can also stay running all the time and easily drive dozens of tests in parallel as all the real testing action is happening in the ephemeral testbed VMs.

The most important preparation step to do for testing in the cloud is quite similar to testing in local VMs with adt-virt-qemu: You need to have suitable VM images. They should be generated every day so that the tests don’t have to spend 15 minutes on dist-upgrading and rebooting, and they should be minimized. They should also be as similar as possible to local VM images that you get with vmdebootstrap or adt-buildvm-ubuntu-cloud, so that test failures can easily be reproduced by developers on their local machines.

To address this, I refactored the entire knowledge how to turn a pristine “default” vmdebootstrap or cloud image into an autopkgtest environment into a single /usr/share/autopkgtest/adt-setup-vm script. adt-buildvm-ubuntu-cloud now uses this, you shold use it with vmdebootstrap --customize (see adt-virt-qemu(1) for details), and it’s also easy to run for building custom cloud images: Essentially, you pick a suitable “pristine” image, nova boot an instance from it, run adt-setup-vm through ssh, then turn this into a new adt specific “daily” image with nova image-create. I wrote a little script to demonstrate and automate this, the only parameter that it gets is the name of the pristine image to base on. This was tested on Canonical’s Bootstack cloud, so it might need some adjustments on other clouds.

Thus something like this should be run daily (pick the base images from nova image-list):

  $ ./ ubuntu-utopic-14.10-beta2-amd64-server-20140923-disk1.img
  $ ./ ubuntu-utopic-14.10-beta2-i386-server-20140923-disk1.img

This will generate adt-utopic-i386 and adt-utopic-amd64.

Now I picked 34 packages that have the “most demanding” tests, in terms of package size (libreoffice), kernel requirements (udisks2, network manager), reboot requirement (systemd), lots of brittle tests (glib2.0, mysql-5.5), or needing Xvfb (shotwell):

  $ cat pkglist

Now I created a shell wrapper around adt-run to work with the parallel tool and to keep the invocation in a single place:

$ cat adt-run-nova
#!/bin/sh -e
adt-run "$1" -U -o "/tmp/adt-$1" --- ssh -s nova -- \
    --flavor m1.small --image adt-utopic-i386 \
    --net-id 415a0839-eb05-4e7a-907c-413c657f4bf5

Please see /usr/share/autopkgtest/ssh-setup/nova for details of the arguments. --image is the image name we built above, --flavor should use a suitable memory/disk size from nova flavor-list and --net-id is an “always need this constant to select a non-default network” option that is specific to Canonical Bootstack.

Finally, let’ run the packages from above with using ten VMs in parallel:

  parallel -j 10 ./adt-run-nova -- $(< pkglist)

After a few iterations of bug fixing there are now only two failures left which are due to flaky tests, the infrastructure now seems to hold up fairly well.

Meanwhile, Vincent Ladeuil is working full steam to integrate this new stuff into the next-gen Ubuntu CI engine, so that we can soon deploy and run all this fully automatically in production.

Happy testing!

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An independent survey of 200 UK-based CIOs has revealed that they are only using about half of the cloud capacity they’ve bought and paid for, and that 90 percent of them see over-provisioning as a necessary evil.

Cloud provider ElasticHosts, which commissioned the survey, says: “Essentially, bad habits like over-provisioning and sacrificing peak performance are being carried from the on-premise world into the cloud, partly because people are willing to accept these limitations.”

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Dustin Kirkland

In case you missed the recent Cloud Austin MeetUp, you have another chance to see the Ubuntu Orange Box live and in action here in Austin!

This time, we're at the OpenStack Austin MeetUp, next Wednesday, September 10, 2014, at 6:30pm at Tech Ranch Austin, 9111 Jollyville Rd #100, Austin, TX!

If you join us, you'll witness all of OpenStack Ice House, deployed in minutes to real hardware. Not an all-in-one DevStack; not a minimum viable set of components.  Real, rich, production-quality OpenStack!  Ceilometer, Ceph, Cinder, Glance, Heat, Horizon, Keystone, MongoDB, MySQL, Nova, NTP, Quantum, and RabbitMQ -- intelligently orchestrated and rapidly scaled across 10 physical servers sitting right up front on the podium.  Of course, we'll go under the hood and look at how all of this comes together on the fabulous Ubuntu Orange Box.

And like any good open source software developer, I generally like to make things myself, and share them with others.  In that spirit, I'll also bring a couple of growlers of my own home brewed beer, Ubrewtu ;-)  Free as in beer, of course!

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