OpenStack is the leading open cloud platform, and Ubuntu is the world’s most popular operating system for OpenStack. Over the past two years we have created a tool that allows users to build an Ubuntu OpenStack cloud on their own hardware in a few simple steps: Autopilot.
This post covers the design process we followed on our journey from alpha to beta to release.
We started by mapping out a basic Autopilot journey based on stakeholder requirements and designed a first cut of all the necessary steps to build a cloud:
After the initial design phase Autopilot was developed and released as an alpha and a beta. This means that for over a year, there was a product to play around with, test and improve before it was made generally available.
Almost immediately after the engineering team started building our new designs, we discovered that we needed to display an additional set of data on the storage graphs. On top of that, some guerilla testing sessions with Canonical engineers brought to light that the CPU and the storage graphs were easily misinterpreted.
After some more competitive research and exploratory sketching, we decided to merge the graphs for each section by putting the utilisation on a vertical axis and the time on the horizontal axis. This seemed to improve the experience for our engineers, but we also wanted to validate with users in usability testing, so we tested the designs with eight participants that were potential Autopilot users. From this testing we learned to include more information on the axes and to include detailed information on hover.
The current graphs are quite an evolution compared to what we started with:
Before a user gets to the Autopilot wizard, they have to configure their hardware, install an application called MAAS to register machines and install Landscape to get access to Autopilot. A third tool called Juju is installed to help Autopilot behind the scenes.
All these bits of software work together to allow users to build their clouds; however, they are all developed as stand-alone products by different teams. This means that during the initial design phase, it was a challenge to map out the entire journey and get a good idea of how the different components work together.
Only when the Autopilot beta was released, was it finally possible for us to find some hardware and go through the entire journey ourselves, step by step. This really helped us to identify common roadblocks and points in the journey where more documentation or in-app explanation was required.
Following our walk-through, we identified a number of points in the Autopilot journey where contextual help was required. In collaboration with the engineering team we gathered definitions of technical concepts, technical requirement, and system restrictions.
Based on this info, we made adjustments to the UI. We designed a landing page with a checklist and introduction copy, and we added headings, help text, and tooltips to the installation and dashboard page. We also included a summary panel on the configuration page, to guide users through the journey and provide instant feedback.
Perhaps the most rewarding type of feedback we gathered from the beta release — our early customers liked Autopilot but wanted more features. From the first designs Autopilot has aimed to help users quickly set up a test cloud. But to use Autopilot to build a production cloud, additional features were required.
One of the biggest improvements for GA release was making it easy to try Autopilot, even for people that don’t have enough spare hardware to build a cloud. Our solution: try Autopilot using VMware!
In the alpha version a user could already select nodes, but in most enterprises users want more flexibility. Often there are different types of hardware for different roles in the cloud, so users don’t always want to automatically distribute all the OpenStack services over all the machines. We designed the ability to choose specific roles like storage or compute for machines, to allow users to make the most of their hardware.
The first feature we added was the ability to add hardware to the cloud. This makes it possible to grow a small test cloud into a production sized solution. We also added the ability to integrate the cloud with Nagios, a common monitoring tool. This means if something happens on any of the cloud hardware, users would receive a notification through their existing monitoring system.
This month we are celebrating another release of OpenStack Autopilot. In the two years since we started designing Autopilot, we have been able to add many improvements and it has been a great experience for us as designers to contribute to a maturing product.
We will continue to iterate and refine the features that are launched and we’re currently mapping the roadmap for the months ahead. Our goal remains for Autopilot to be a tool for users to maintain and upgrade an enterprise grade cloud that can be at the core of their operations.
A few years ago, I wrote and released a fun little script that would carve up an Ubuntu Byobu terminal into a bunch of splits, running various random command line status utilities.
100% complete technical mumbo jumbo. The goal was to turn your terminal into something that belongs in a Hollywood hacker film.
I am proud to see it included in this NBCNews piece about "Ransomware". All of the screenshots, demonstrating what a "hacker" is doing with a system are straight from Ubuntu, Byobu, and Hollywood!
During the Ubuntu Online Summit last week, my colleague Daniel Holbach came up with what he called a “10 day challenge” to some of the engineering manager directing the convergence work in Ubuntu. The idea is simple, try and use only the Unity 8 desktop for 10 working days (two weeks). I thought this was a great way to really identify how close it is to being usable by most Ubuntu users, as well as finding the bugs that cause the most pain in making the switch. So on Friday of last week, with UOS over, I took up the challenge.
Below I will discuss all of the steps that I went through to get it working to my needs. They are not the “official” way of doing it (there isn’t an official way to do all this yet) and they won’t cover every usage scenario, just the ones I faced. If you want to try this challenge yourself they will help you get started. If at any time you get stuck, you can find help in the #ubuntu-unity channel on Freenode, where the developers behind all of these components are very friendly and helpful.
To get started you first need to be on the latest release of Ubuntu. I am using Ubuntu 16.04 (Xenial Xerus), which is the best release for testing Unity 8. You will also need the stable-phone-overlay PPA. Don’t let the name fool you, it’s not just for phones, but it is where you will find the very latest packages for Mir, Unity 8, Libertine and other components you will need. You can install is with this command:
sudo add-apt-repository ppa:ci-train-ppa-service/stable-phone-overlay
Then you will need to install the Unity 8 session package, so that you can select it from the login screen:
sudo apt install unity8-desktop-session-mir
When I did this there was a bug in the libhybris package that was causing Mir to try and use some Android stuff, which clearly isn’t available on my laptop. The fix wasn’t yet in the PPA, so I had to take the additional step of installing a fix from our continuous integration system (Note: originally the command below used silo 53, but I’ve been told it is now in silo 31). If you get a black screen when trying to start your Unity 8 session, you probably need this too.
sudo apt-get install phablet-tools phablet-tools-citrain citrain host-upgrade 031
This was enough to get Unity 8 to load for me, but all my apps would crash within a half second of being launched. It turned out to be a problem with the cgroups manager, specifically the cgmanager service was disabled for me (I suspect this was leftover configurations from previous attempts at using Unity 8). After re-enabling it, I was able to log back into Unity 8 and start using apps!
sudo systemctl enable cgmanager
The first thing you’ll notice is that you don’t have many apps available in Unity 8. I had probably more than most, having installed some Ubuntu SDK apps natively on my laptop already. If you haven’t installed the webbrowser-app already, you should. It’s in the Xenial archive and the PPA you added above, so just
sudo apt install webbrowser-app
But that will only get you so far. What you really need are a terminal and file manager. Fortunately those have been created as part of the Core Apps project, you just need to install them. Because the Ubuntu Store wasn’t working for me (see bottom of this post) I had to manually download and install them:
sudo click install --user mhall com.ubuntu.filemanager_0.4.525_multi.click sudo click install --user mhall com.ubuntu.terminal_0.7.170_multi.click
If you want to use these apps in Unity 7 as well, you have to modify their .desktop files located in ~/.local/share/applications/ and add the -x flag after aa-exec-click, this is because by default it prevents running these apps under X11 where they won’t have the safety of confinement that they get under Mir.
The file manager needed a bit of extra effort to get working. It contains many Samba libraries that allow it to access windows network shares, but for some reason the app was looking for them in the wrong place. As a quick and dirty hack, I ended up copying whatever libraries it needed from /opt/click.ubuntu.com/com.ubuntu.filemanager/current/lib/i386-linux-gnu/ to /usr/lib/i386-linux-gnu/samba/. It’s worth the effort, though, because you need the file manager if you want do things like upload files through the webbrowser.
IRC is a vital communication tool for my job, we all use it every day. In fact, I find it so important that I have a remote client that stays connected 24/7, which I connect to via ssh. Thanks to the Terminal core app, I have quick and easy access to that. But when I first tried to connect to my server, which uses public-key authentication (as they all should), my connection was refused. That is because the Unity 8 session doesn’t run the ssh-agent service on startup. You can start it manually from the terminal:
This will output some shell commands to setup environment variables, copy those and paste them right back into your terminal to set them. Then you should be able to ssh like normal, and if your key needs a passphrase you will be prompted for it in the terminal rather than in a dialog like you get in Unity 7.
Now that you’ve got some apps running natively on Mir, you probably want to try out support for all of your traditional desktop apps, as you’ve heard advertised. This is done by a project called Libertine, which creates an LXC container and XMir to keep those unconfined apps safely away from your new properly confined setup. The first thing you will need to do is install the libertine packages:
apt-get install libertine libertine-scope
Once you have those, you will see a Libertine app in your Apps scope. This is the app that lets you manage your Libertine containers (yes, you can have more than one), and install apps into them. Creating a new container is simply a matter of pressing the “Install” button. You can give it a name of leave it blank to get the default “Xenial”.
Once your container is setup, you can install as many apps into it as you want, again using the Libertine container manager. You can even use it to search the archives if you don’t know the exact package name. It will also install any dependencies that package needs into your Libertine container.
Now that you have your container setup and apps installed into it, you are ready to start trying them out. For now you have to access them from a separate scope, since the default Apps scope doesn’t look into Libertine containers. That is why you had to install the libertine-scope package above. You can find this scope by clicking on the Dash’s bottom edge indicator to open the Scopes manger, and selecting the Legacy Applications Scope. There you will see launchers for the apps you have installed.
Libertine uses a special container manager to launch apps. If it isn’t running, as was the case for me, your legacy app windows will remain black. To fix that, open up the terminal and manually start the manager:
initctl --session start libertine-lxc-manager
By default the legacy apps don’t look very nice. They default to the most basic of themes that look like you’ve time-traveled back to the mid-1990s, and nobody wants to do that. The reason for this is because these apps (or rather, the toolkit they use) expect certain system settings to tell them what theme to use, but those settings aren’t actually a dependency of the application’s package. They are part of a default desktop install, but not part of the default Libertine image.
I found a way to fix this, at least for some apps, by installing the light-themes and ubuntu-settings packages into the Libertine container. Specifically it should work for any Gtk3 based application, such as GEdit. It does not, however, work for apps that still use the Gtk2 toolkit, such as Geany. I have not dug deeper to try and figure out how to fix Gtk2 themes, if anybody has a suggestion please leave it in the comments.
It has been a couple of months since I last tried the Unity 8 session, back before I upgraded to Xenial, and at that time there wasn’t much working. I went into this challenge expecting it to be better, but not by much. I honestly didn’t expect to spend even a full day using it. So I was really quite surprised to find that, once I found the workarounds above, I was not only able to spend the full day in it, but I was able to do so quite easily.
Whenever you have a new DE (which Unity 8 effectively is) and the latest UI toolkit (Qt 5) you have to be concerned about performance and resource use, and given the bleeding-edge nature of Unity 8 on the desktop, I was expecting to sacrifice some CPU cycles, battery life and RAM. If anything, the opposite was the case. I get at least as many hours on my battery as I do with Unity 7, and I was using less than half the RAM I typically do.
Moreover, things that I was expecting to cause me problems surprisingly didn’t. I was able to use Google Hangouts for my video conferences, which I knew had just been enabled in the browser. But I fully expected suspend/resume to have trouble with Mir, given the years I spent fighting it in X11 in the past, but it worked nearly flawlessly (see below). The network indicator had all of my VPN configurations waiting to be used, and they worked perfectly. Even pulse audio was working as well as it did in Unity 7, though this did introduce some problems (again, see below). It even has settings to adjust the mouse speed and disable the trackpad when I’m typing. Most imporantly, nearly all of the keyboard shortcuts that have become subconcious to me in Unity 7 are working in Unity 8.
Most importantly, I was able to write this blog post from Unity 8. That includes taking all of the screenshots and uploading them to WordPress. Switching back and forth between my browser and my notes document to see what I had done over the last few days, or going to the terminal to verify the commands I mentioned above.
Of course, it wasn’t all unicorns and rainbows, Unity 8 is still very bleeding edge as a desktop shell, and if you want to use it you need to be prepared for some pain. None of it has so far been bad enough to stop me, but your mileage may vary.
One of the first minor pain-points is the fact that middle-click doesn’t paste the active text highlight. I hadn’t realized how much I have become dependent on that until I didn’t have it. You also can’t copy/paste between a Mir and an XMir window, which makes legacy apps somewhat less useful, but that’s on the roadmap to be fixed.
Speaking of windows, Unity 8 is still limited to one per app. This is going to change, but it is the current state of things. This doesn’t matter so much for native apps, which were build under this restriciton, and the terminal app having tabs was a saving grace here. But for legacy apps it presents a bigger issue, especially apps like GTG (Getting Things Gnome) where multi-window is a requirement.
Some power-management is missing too, such as dimming the screen after some amount of inactivity, or turning it off altogether. The session also will not lock when you suspend it, so don’t depend on this in a security-critical way (but really, if you’re running bleeding-edge desktops in security-critical environments, you have bigger problems).
I also had a minor problem with my USB headset. It’s actually a problem I have in Unity 7 too, since upgrading to Xenial the volume and mute controls don’t automatically switch to the headset, even though the audio output and input do. I had a workaround for that in Unity 7, I could open the sound settings and manually change it to the headset, at which point the controls work on it. But in Unity 8’s sound settings there is no such option, so my workaround isn’t available.
The biggest hurdle, from my perspective, was not being able to install apps from the store. This is due to something in the store scope, online accounts, or Ubuntu One, I haven’t figured out which yet. So to install anything, I had to get the .click package and do it manually. But asking around I seem to be the only one having this problem, so those of you who want to try this yourself may not have to worry about that.
No, not for me. I’m on day 3 of this 10 day challenge, and so far things are going well enough for me to continue. I have been posting regular small updates on Google+, and will keep doing so. If I have enough for a new blog post, I may write another one here, but for the most part keep an eye on my G+ feed. Add your own experiences there, and again join #ubuntu-unity if you get stuck or need help.Read more
kirkland@x250:~⟫ lxc launch ubuntu-daily:x -p default -p docker
kirkland@x250:~⟫ lxc list | grep RUNNING
| magical-damion | RUNNING | 10.16.4.52 (eth0) | | PERSISTENT | 0 |
kirkland@x250:~⟫ lxc exec magical-damion bash
root@magical-damion:~# apt update >/dev/null 2>&1 ; apt install -y docker.io >/dev/null 2>&1
root@magical-damion:~# docker run -it ubuntu bash
Unable to find image 'ubuntu:latest' locally
latest: Pulling from library/ubuntu
759d6771041e: Pull complete
8836b825667b: Pull complete
c2f5e51744e6: Pull complete
a3ed95caeb02: Pull complete
Status: Downloaded newer image for ubuntu:latest
root@0577bd7d5db1:/# ifconfig eth0
eth0 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 02:42:ac:11:00:02
inet addr:172.17.0.2 Bcast:0.0.0.0 Mask:255.255.0.0
inet6 addr: fe80::42:acff:fe11:2/64 Scope:Link
UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1
RX packets:16 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
TX packets:8 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
RX bytes:1296 (1.2 KB) TX bytes:648 (648.0 B)
kirkland@x250:~$ sudo fanatic
Welcome to the fanatic fan networking wizard. This will help you set
up an example fan network and optionally configure docker and/or LXD to
use this network. See fanatic(1) for more details.
Configure fan underlay (hit return to accept, or specify alternative) [10.0.0.0/16]:
Configure fan overlay (hit return to accept, or specify alternative) [250.0.0.0/8]:
Create LXD networking for underlay:10.0.0.0/16 overlay:250.0.0.0/8 [Yn]: n
Create docker networking for underlay:10.0.0.0/16 overlay:250.0.0.0/8 [Yn]: Y
Test docker networking for underlay:10.0.0.45/16 overlay:250.0.0.0/8
(NOTE: potentially triggers large image downloads) [Yn]: Y
local docker test: creating test container ...
test master: ping test (250.0.45.0) ...
test slave: ping test (250.0.45.1) ...
test master: ping test ... PASS
test master: short data test (250.0.45.1 -> 250.0.45.0) ...
test slave: ping test ... PASS
test slave: short data test (250.0.45.0 -> 250.0.45.1) ...
test master: short data ... PASS
test slave: short data ... PASS
test slave: long data test (250.0.45.0 -> 250.0.45.1) ...
test master: long data test (250.0.45.1 -> 250.0.45.0) ...
test master: long data ... PASS
test slave: long data ... PASS
local docker test: destroying test container ...
local docker test: test complete PASS (master=0 slave=0)
This host IP address: 10.0.0.45
kirkland@x250:~⟫ sudo docker run -it ubuntu bash
root@c22cf0d8e1f7:/# apt update >/dev/null 2>&1 ; apt install -y iperf >/dev/null 2>&1
root@c22cf0d8e1f7:/# ifconfig eth0
eth0 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 02:42:fa:00:2d:00
inet addr:250.0.45.0 Bcast:0.0.0.0 Mask:255.0.0.0
inet6 addr: fe80::42:faff:fe00:2d00/64 Scope:Link
UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1450 Metric:1
RX packets:6423 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
TX packets:4120 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
RX bytes:22065202 (22.0 MB) TX bytes:227225 (227.2 KB)
root@c22cf0d8e1f7:/# iperf -c 250.0.8.0
multicast ttl failed: Invalid argument
Client connecting to 250.0.8.0, TCP port 5001
TCP window size: 45.0 KByte (default)
[ 3] local 250.0.45.0 port 54274 connected with 250.0.8.0 port 5001
[ ID] Interval Transfer Bandwidth
[ 3] 0.0-10.0 sec 1.05 GBytes 902 Mbits/sec
kirkland@masterbr:~⟫ sudo docker run -it ubuntu bash
root@effc8fe2513d:/# apt update >/dev/null 2>&1 ; apt install -y iperf >/dev/null 2>&1
root@effc8fe2513d:/# ifconfig eth0
eth0 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 02:42:fa:00:08:00
inet addr:250.0.8.0 Bcast:0.0.0.0 Mask:255.0.0.0
inet6 addr: fe80::42:faff:fe00:800/64 Scope:Link
UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1450 Metric:1
RX packets:7659 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
TX packets:3433 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
RX bytes:22131852 (22.1 MB) TX bytes:189875 (189.8 KB)
root@effc8fe2513d:/# iperf -s
Server listening on TCP port 5001
TCP window size: 85.3 KByte (default)
[ 4] local 250.0.8.0 port 5001 connected with 250.0.45.0 port 54274
[ ID] Interval Transfer Bandwidth
[ 4] 0.0-10.0 sec 1.05 GBytes 899 Mbits/sec
lxc launch ubuntu-daily:x -p default -p docker
lxc list | grep RUNNING
dpkg -l docker.io | grep docker.io
sudo docker images | grep -m1 ubuntu
sudo docker run -it ubuntu bash
apt update >/dev/null 2>&1 ; apt install -y net-tools >/dev/null 2>&1
As announced last week, Microsoft and Canonical have worked together to bring Ubuntu's userspace natively into Windows 10.
As of today, Windows 10 Insiders can now take Ubuntu on Windows for a test drive! Here's how...
1) You need to have a system running today's 64-bit build of Windows 10 (Build 14316).
sudo apt update
sudo apt dist-upgrade -y
sudo apt install -y dconf-editor
Somehow I missed the fact that I never wrote Community Donations report for Q3 2015. I only realized it because it’s time for me to start working on Q4. Sorry for the oversight, but that report is now published.
The next report should be out soon, in the mean time you can look at all of the past reports so see the great things we’ve been able to do with and for the Ubuntu community through this program. Everybody who has recieved these funds have used them to contribute to the project in one way or another, and we appreciate all of their work.
As you may notice, we’ve been regularly paying out more than we’ve been getting in donations. While we’ve had a carry-over balance ever since we started this program, that balance is running down. If you like the things we’ve been able to support with this program, please consider sending it a contribution and helping us spread the word about it.
Update: Here's how to get started using Ubuntu on Windows
|See also Scott Hanselman's blog here|
As most you you know by now, Ubuntu 16.04 will be dropping the old Ubuntu Software Center in favor of the newer Gnome Software as the graphical front-end to both the Ubuntu archives and 3rd party application store.
Gnome Software provides a lot of the same enhancements over simple package managers that USC did, and it does this using a new metadata format standard called AppStream. While much of the needed AppStream data can be extracted from the existing packages in the archives, sometimes that’s not sufficient, and that’s when we need people to help fill the gaps.
It turns out that the bulk of the missing or incorrect data is caused by the application icons being used by app packages. While most apps already have an icon, it was never strictly enforced before, and the size and format allowed by the desktop specs was more lenient than what’s needed now. These lower resolution icons might have been fine for a menu item, but they don’t work very well for a nice, beautiful App Store interface like Gnome Software. And that’s where you can help!
Don’t worry, contributing icons isn’t hard, and it doesn’t require any knowledge of programming or packing to do. Best of all, you’ll not only be helping Ubuntu, but you’ll also be contributing to any other distro that uses the AppStream standard too! In the steps below I will walk you through the process of finding an app in need, getting the correct icon for it, and contributing it to the upstream project and Ubuntu.
Because the AppStream data is being automatically extracted from the contents of existing packages, we are able to tell which apps are in need of new icons, and we’ve generated a list of them, sorted by popularity (based on PopCon stats) so you can prioritize your contributions to where they will help the most users. To start working on one, first click the “Create” link to file a new bug report against the package in Ubuntu. Then replace that link in the wiki with a link to your new bug, and put your name in the “Claimed” column so that others know you’ve already started work on it.
Note that a package can contain multiple .desktop files, each of which has it’s own icon, and your bug report will be specific to just that one metadata file. You will also need to be a member of the ~ubuntu-etherpad team (or sub-team like ~ubuntumembers) in order to edit the wiki, you will be asked to verify that membership as part of the login process with Ubuntu SSO.
While the extraction process is capable of identifying what packages have a missing or unsupported image in them, it’s not always smart enough to know which packages should have this AppStream data in the first place. So before you get started working on icons, it’s best to first make sure that the metadata file you picked should be part of the AppStream index in the first place.
Because AppStream was designed to be application-centric, the metadata extraction process only looks at those with Type=Application in their .desktop file. It will also ignore any .desktop files with NoDisplay=True in them. If you find a file in the list that shouldn’t be indexed by AppStream, chances are one or both of these values are set incorrectly. In that case you should change your bug description to state that, rather than attaching an icon to it.
Since there is nothing Ubuntu-specific about AppStream data or icons, you really should be sending your contribution upstream to the originating project. Not only is this best for Ubuntu (carrying patches wastes resources), but it’s just the right thing to do in the open source community. So the after you’ve chosen an app to work on and verfied that it does in fact need a new icon for AppStream, the very next thing you should do is start talking to the upstream project developers.
Start by letting them know that you want to contribute to their project so that it integrates better with AppStream enabled stores (you can reference these Guidelines if they’re not familiar with it), and opening a similar bug report in their bug tracker if they don’t have one already. Finally, be sure to include a link to that upstream bug report in the Ubuntu bug you opened previously so that the Ubuntu developers know the work is also going into upstream to (your contribute might be rejected otherwise).
Chances are the upstream developers already have an icon that meets the AppStream requirements, so ask them about it before trying to find one on your own. If not, look for existing artwork assets that can be used as a logo, and remember that it needs to be at least 64×64 pixels (this is where SVGs are ideal, as they can be exported to any size). Whatever you use, make sure that it matches the application’s current branding, we’re not out to create a new logo for them after all. If you do create a new image file, you will need to make it available under the CC-BY-SA license.
While AppStream only requires a 64×64 pixel image, many desktops (including Unity) will benefit from having even higher resolution icons, and it’s always easier to scale them down than up. So if you have the option, try to provide a 256×256 icon image (or again, just an SVG).
Now that you’ve found (or created) an appropriate icon, it’s time to get it into both the upstream project and Ubuntu. Because each upstream will be different in how they want you to do that, you will need to ask them for guidance (and possibly assistance) in order to do that. Just make sure that you update the upstream bug report with your work, so that the Ubuntu developers can see that it’s been done.
Ubuntu 16.04 has already synced with Debian, so it’s too late for these changes in the upstream project to make their way into this release. In order to get them into 16.04, the Ubuntu packages will have to carry a patch until the changes that land in upstream have the time to make their way into the Ubuntu archives. That’s why it’s so important to get your contribution accepted into the upstream project first, the Ubuntu developers want to know that the patches to their packages will eventually be replaced by the same change from upstream.
Congratulations, you’ve just made a contribution that is likely to affect millions of people and benefit the entire open source community! That’s something to celebrate, so take to Twitter, Google+, Facebook or your own blog and talk about it. Not only is it good to see people doing these kinds of contributions, it’s also highly motivating to others who might not otherwise get involved. So share your experience, help others who want to do the same, and if you enjoyed it feel free to grab another app from the list and do it again.Read more
$ locate zfs.ko
$ lsmod | grep zfs
zfs 2801664 11
zunicode 331776 1 zfs
zcommon 57344 1 zfs
znvpair 90112 2 zfs,zcommon
spl 102400 3 zfs,zcommon,znvpair
zavl 16384 1 zfs
$ head -n1 /etc/issue
Ubuntu Xenial Xerus (development branch) \n \l
$ sudo apt install lxd zfsutils-linux
$ sudo lxd init
Name of the storage backend to use (dir or zfs): zfs
Create a new ZFS pool (yes/no)? yes
Name of the new ZFS pool: lxd
Would you like to use an existing block device (yes/no)? no
Size in GB of the new loop device (1GB minimum): 2
Would you like LXD to be available over the network (yes/no)? no
LXD has been successfully configured.
$ sudo zpool list
NAME SIZE ALLOC FREE EXPANDSZ FRAG CAP DEDUP HEALTH ALTROOT
lxd 1.98G 450K 1.98G - 0% 0% 1.00x ONLINE -
$ sudo zpool status
scan: none requested
NAME STATE READ WRITE CKSUM
lxd ONLINE 0 0 0
/var/lib/lxd/zfs.img ONLINE 0 0 0
errors: No known data errors
$ lxc config get storage.zfs_pool_name
$ newgrp lxd
$ lxd-images import ubuntu --alias ubuntu
Downloading the GPG key for http://cloud-images.ubuntu.com
Progress: 48 %
Validating the GPG signature of /tmp/tmpa71cw5wl/download.json.asc
Downloading the image.
Image manifest: http://cloud-images.ubuntu.com/server/releases/trusty/release-20160201/ubuntu-14.04-server-cloudimg-amd64.manifest
Image imported as: 54c8caac1f61901ed86c68f24af5f5d3672bdc62c71d04f06df3a59e95684473
Setup alias: ubuntu
$ for i in $(seq 1 5); do lxc launch ubuntu; done
$ lxc list
| NAME | STATE | IPV4 | IPV6 | EPHEMERAL | SNAPSHOTS |
| discordant-loria | RUNNING | 10.0.3.130 (eth0) | | NO | 0 |
| fictive-noble | RUNNING | 10.0.3.91 (eth0) | | NO | 0 |
| interprotoplasmic-essie | RUNNING | 10.0.3.242 (eth0) | | NO | 0 |
| nondamaging-cain | RUNNING | 10.0.3.9 (eth0) | | NO | 0 |
| untreasurable-efrain | RUNNING | 10.0.3.89 (eth0) | | NO | 0 |
ubuntu@ip-172-30-0-129:~⟫ time sudo apt install docker.io -y
ubuntu@ip-172-30-0-129:~⟫ time sudo docker pull ubuntu
latest: Pulling from ubuntu
f15ce52fc004: Pull complete
c4fae638e7ce: Pull complete
a4c5be5b6e59: Pull complete
8693db7e8a00: Pull complete
ubuntu:latest: The image you are pulling has been verified. Important: image verification is a tech preview feature and should not be relied on to provide security.
Status: Downloaded newer image for ubuntu:latest
ubuntu@ip-172-30-0-129:/tmp/docker⟫ time sudo docker run alpine /bin/true
ubuntu@ip-172-30-0-129:/tmp/docker⟫ time sudo docker run ubuntu /bin/true
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